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NetTalk OAuth

Available in NetTalk Desktop, NetTalk Server and NetTalk Apps. Applies to Desktop (ABC or Clarion) apps.


OAuth is a common approach for logging onto a Web Service or Web application.

The method is popular because it allows your program to log into the service, without your program actually discovering the user name or password. Once you are logged in you can then make use of resources which that API provides. In this document this will be referred to as First Party Authentication. You are authenticating with a service in order to use that service.

Using a service is a separate topic to OAuth. In this document the goal is to log into the service, and receive a Token. The Token is then used later on by other NetTalk classes (or indeed your own classes) to interact with the service.

OAuth also allows the service to authenticate using a 3rd party - not the web service itself. For example you might log into a web service providing the weather, but do so using a Google Login. The weather service does not get your Google credentials, but it trusts Google that you are who you say you are. In this document this will be referred to as Third Party Authentication.

There are two popular version, OAuth 1a and OAuth 2. Both are supported.

Your app could allow the client to select among different OAuth providers - they are not bound to the one provider that you specify.

The OAuth provider usually provides a web interface for the user to login. In order for this to work in a Clarion Desktop application you will need an HTML control to interact with the provider. For this reason CapeSoft's File Explorer is required for this functionality to work in a Desktop program.

The OAuth provider provides your program with a Token (which is just a string). This string is stored so that the user does not need to log in (to the web service) again. Even if the user changes their password at the provider, the token is still valid.


OAuth requires the user to interact with the provider in a web page. For this reason FileExplorer is required.
In most cases Interaction with the service takes place using the JSON format so for this reason jFiles is required.


OAuth is a way for your Webclient class (or class derived from Webclient) to authenticate with a remote server. The whole point of an OAuth login is to get a token (which is just a string) and then this token is used when communicating with that server.

Your program will need an OAuthLogin procedure in order for the user to log in to the service. Unlike other protocols your program does not ask for (or store) the user's login and password. Rather you just provide the window for them to login on, and that window provides your app with the token.

The token can be stored, so the login window will first attempt to use a stored token. If no stored token exists then the Login window will be displayed to the user so they can log in, a token can be received, and stored.

Your webclient procedure will then use this token in the Authorization property. That is ultimately what this whole document is about, simply getting the token so it can be used in the Authorization property.

Under the hood there are actually two flavors of OAuth in the wild. OAuth 1a is an earlier specification, and used by services like  Flickr, Xero and Twitter. OAuth2 is a later specification and used by services such as Dropbox, Google, Microsoft, Yahoo and so on. Some services provide both options - where you do have an option rather use the OAuth 2 version.

Using NetOAuth you should be able to log into any API which requires an OAuth connection. Some examples (and detailed instructions) for popular services appear below, but the principle for them is all the same. If you are attempting to connect to a service not documented below, and you are unfamiliar with the process then we recommend you walk through this process with 2 or 3 providers to get a feel for it. It is likely that with this experience you will be able to figure out what is needed for any API.

In this section it is assumed that your client will be connecting to the service using their credentials, not your credentials. They will be logging into the service using NetOAuth using their own login and password.

That said it is also necessary for the developer to have their own account on the service (in almost all cases a free account.) This is different to other protocols (like say email) where a user can send to an ISP email server even though the developer has never used that server.

While the developer will need their own login to the service (to "register" the application) the end user will not need the developer's credentials, and will not have access to the developer's account.

The basic pattern for all the services is the same;
  1. Create an account at the service
  2. Register the app on the service
  3. Gather (or set) the vital settings the program will need.
  4. Use those settings in a Window, passing them to the NetOAuth object.

Vital Settings

In order for your app to log in to a service you will need to know the following information. Your program will need to either hard-code, or load (as a setting) this information.
OAuth Versionthe version of the OAuth API that the service supports. Possible values are 1 or 2. Some services support both, in which case use Version 2.
Client IDThis is something that identifies your application to the service. It's typically a string of random characters. It is also sometimes called the App Key, the Application ID, the Consumer Key or something like that.
Client SecretThis is a "password" that belongs to your application. It is typically a string of random characters. It's also sometimes called App Secret, Consumer Secret, Password and so on.
Redirect URLThis is the URL the service will redirect the browser to on a successful login. The window in your application will intercept this URL. Sometimes this URL is not set by you, but is set (to http://localhost) by the service as a default value. If given the option you can enter anything you like, but the simplest, and most compatible option seems to be http://localhost or just localhost. (Some services want the HTTP part, others explicitly don't want it.)
ScopeThis item is optional, and depends on the service. Usually used by services that offer different levels of API, or different API's. If it's not immediately obvious then you can set it to a blank string in the program.
Request Token URLOnly required by services that use OAuth version 1. This URL is usually listed in the Service Documentation for that service.
Authorize URLA URL the program will use to request a token from the service. This URL is usually listed in the Service Documentation for that service.
Access Token URLA second URL used by the service during the OAuth login process. This may also be called the Exchange URL. This URL is usually listed in the Service Documentation for that service.


You may be here because you are implementing NetDrive or some other class that needs OAuth support in your program.

NetDrive and OAuth are different topics because NetDrive is just one example of a service that uses OAuth logins. If you are using NetDrive then you need to also implement the OAuth Client, simply because NetDrive will need to use that. For the purposes of OAuth it does not matter what the OAuth login is needed for - the process for implementing it is the same.

So if you are using OAuth with NetDrive, or if you are using it for a simple WebClient class, go ahead and follow the instructions below.

Implementing OAuth

NetTalk OAuth requires a number of other CapeSoft Accessories in order to work. So the first step is to make sure that the global extensions for NetTalk, StringTheory, File Explorer and jFiles are added to the application.

When you write a program that makes use of an OAuth service, you will need to register your application with that service first. This is necessary to get the vital settings your app will need. Examples of registering with various services can be found below. If your service is not on this list then it is recommended that you walk through the process for 2 or 3 services that have the same OAuth version support. Once you have followed the process a couple times you will be ready to tackle the settings for a new service.

OAuthLogin Procedure

The OAuthDemo example can be found in the \clarion\examples\nettalk\oauth folder. There are sub folders there for ABC and Legacy. These examples contain an example OAuthLogin procedure. The main window demonstrates calling this procedure for many different services.  You will need to import this OAuthLogin procedure directly into your application. [1]

Visually the window contains only a few controls, but you are welcome to adjust the window visually to suit the look of your application.

The OAuthLogin procedure takes a single Group parameter, called pParms. This contains both the settings the procedure will need (based on the service you are connecting to) and will also contain the results of the login as well once the login is completed. Pretty much all you have to do to implement OAuth for any service is declare and populate this parameter correctly.

Calling the OAuthLogin Procedure

If you are using a class (like say NetDrive) which is designed to be used with NetOAuth then see the documentation for that class, and also the section below on Using Classes that Support NetOAuth.

If you are not using a class that is designed for NetOAuth, but a class designed for OAuth in general then you have slightly more work to do. First you need to declare a variable of the correct type.

OAuthParms    Like(OAuthParametersGroup)

Next you will populate the group

OAuthParms.pServiceName = 'Google'
OAuthParms.pForce = true
! forces a new login, rejects stored login
OAuthParms.pOAuthVersion = 2
OAuthParms.pClientId = '***something***'
OAuthParms.pClientSecret = '***something***'
OAuthParms.pRedirectURL = 'http://localhost'
OAuthParms.pScope = ''
OAuthParms.pAuthorizeURL = ''
OAuthParms.pAccessTokenURL = ''

Finally you will call the OAuthLogin procedure that you imported into your application earlier.

The OAuthLogin procedure returns a LONG value, either net:Ok (for success) or something else for failure. Some parameters in the OAuthParms group are updated by a successful login. (See OAuthParametersGroup for more information on that.)

Example of calling the OAuthLogin procedure

 if OAuthLogin(OAuthParms) = net:Ok
   ! login successful
   ! login failed 

Your code, or class can then access the contents of OAuthParms are required. The most likely value needed by the code is OAuthParms.rToken, which is also known as the AccessToken.


The OAuthDemo apps have a Main procedure containing example settings for ten different services. While these settings are valid, you will need to get your own settings for your application. Using the example ClientID and ClientSecret values in your own application is not permitted.

The ClientID and ClientSecret fields in the OAuthDemo example are valid fields, which mean the examples work, but you must not use these in your own program. Abuse of these fields would lead to the Demo apps being deactivated which would make them less useful to everyone in the long run.

The various vital settings in the login procedure are simply coded into the procedure as fixed strings. In your application you may choose to elaborate on this, perhaps storing these as settings in your program or fields in your database. You are of course free to edit the procedure in this way.

The OAuthLogin procedure will return the values your program will need to use later on in the Parms parameter. The program procedure should store these values so your user does not have to login every time you use the API. [2] The OAuthLogin procedure will store these values in a simple INI file for you. If the OAuthLogin procedure is called (and parms.pForce = false) then these stored values will be loaded and returned to the caller for immediate use. The user will not need to login in this case.

You can alter the code in OAuthLogin if you wish to store the values in an alternate place.

It's worth reiterating here that your program does not "see" or "record" the user's login or password. The whole point of OAuth is that the user is able to login without exposing this to your program. All the program sees are the Tokens returned by the remote service.


1. If you are building a multi-dll system then you can import this procedure into any DLL in your system as long as the procedure can be called by your WebClient (or NetDrive) procedures. Set the procedure to Export so it can be used by procedures in other DLL's as well.

2. This is service dependent. Some services place a lifespan on the token returned. In some cases the token can be renewed, in other cases it can't. For example the Xero service allows for a 30 minute window of API usage, after that the token expires and the user will need to log in again.

Client Credentials Grant Type

Note: This section is here because some services implement OAuth, but bypass the user-logging in requirement. This section can be skipped for normal OAuth use.

The typical OAuth 2 process looks like this;

This is known as the Authorization Code Grant Type.

As you can see this is a 2 step process. The UserLogin method is called, which then passes control to an end user (typically in a Browser control) which allows the user to log in. The goal of this is to get an authorization code value back from the service (hence the name.)

In the second step the code is passed to the service as part of a GetAccessToken request. This returns the token to the program. The token will then allow access to all the other methods in the API.

In some cases however the service reduces this requirement to a single step. They bypass step 1, instead providing you with a single URL needed to get a token. This is known as the Client Credentials Grant Type. In this situation the client_id and client_secret are essentially a login and password.

Implementing Client Credentials Grant Type

Implementing this grant type is very similar to the above instructions. The only difference is that the calling procedure should set

OAuthParms.pGrantType = 'client_credentials'

The service provider will provide you with the necessary credentials - typically something to put into the client_id, and  client_secret fields.  Here's a sample complete request;

OAuthParms.pServiceName = 'AutoData'
OAuthParms.pOAuthVersion = 2
OAuthParms.pClientId = '***something***'
OAuthParms.pClientSecret = '***something***'
OAuthParms.pGrantType = 'client_credentials'
OAuthParms.pScope = 'scope1'
OAuthParms.pAccessTokenURL = ''

Load and Save Tokens

Tokens (and other information) can (and should) be saved between program runs. This means the user only has to login once, the token is then good for some period of time (depending on the service.)

By default the NetOAuth class saves the token information in an INI file called oAuth.Ini, in the "current directory". This implies the following;
  1. The current directory is set to something useful. This is usually the case, but if your program does not set, and maintain the current directory (especially after calls to FILEDIALOG) then this not work correctly.
  2. If the Current Directory is shared between users (as in say a network data folder) then once one user logs in all users will have access to the service.
  3. You are happy to use an INI file to store settings.

If any of the above conditions are not acceptable to your program, then it is easy for you to override the location, and form, of the save. You could save the INI file in a different location, or save the settings in a database table, or whatever you prefer.

There are two methods provided, one called Load, the other called Save. You can add your own code to these methods in the OAuthLogin procedure, BEFORE the parent call. If you do a RETURN statement before the parent call then the parent call is suppressed (and so the default INI code will not run.)

For details on the fields that need saving and loading see netOauth.Clw, in the Load and Save methods.

Using Tokens

The goal of the OAuth login is to get a Token. This is a random string value which you can use in subsequent interactions with the API as a form of authentication.

The exact way the server uses the token may vary from one service to another. The most common approach though is that the token is passed as part of the header in the Authorization field as a Bearer value. For example;

net.Authorization = 'Bearer ' & OAuthParms.rToken

Using Classes that Support NetOAuth

If a class is designed using the Guidelines to Class Authors below then the use of that class (from an OAuth point of view) will be very straight forward (at least from the OAuth point of view.)
  1. Populate the derived UserLogin method. The goal here is prime the supplied OAuthParms property, and call the OAuthLogin procedure that is in your application. For example;

    parent.UserLogin(pForce) ! call this first

    self.OAuthParms.pClientId = '***some client id***' 
    ! specific to this application
    self.OAuthParms.pClientSecret = '***some secret***'
    ! specific to this application

    ReturnValue = OAuthLogin(self.OAuthParms)
    ! this is the OAuthLogin proc in your app created earlier.

    if ReturnValue = net:Ok

    Return ReturnValue


Guidelines to Class Authors

Adding OAuth support to a class is very straight-forward, and if done in a consistent way then users will find using these classes easier. If you are an author of classes then this section is for you.

The following features in your class are recommended;
  1. At the top of the include file include the NetOAuth.Inc file

  2.  A Property in the app called OAuthParms (or similar) of type Group(OAuthParametersGroup).

    OAuthParms Group(OAuthParametersGroup).
  3. A method called UserLogin.

    UserLogin PROCEDURE(Long pForce=false) ,Long,Proc,Virtual

    In this method populate as many of the OAuthParms fields as is practical for your class. For example the NetDriveDropBox class is able to populate all the following fields, as these are static for DropBox;

    self.OAuthParms.pServiceName = 'Dropbox'
    self.OAuthParms.pForce = pForce
    self.OAuthParms.pOAuthVersion = 2
    self.OAuthParms.pRedirectURL = 'http://localhost'
    self.OAuthParms.pAuthorizeURL = ''
    self.OAuthParms.pAccessTokenURL = '
    return net:notok 
    ! the derived method needs to set this to ok if it is successful there.

    This reduces the code the user has to set in their own program to a minimum.
In your class you will be able to access all the necessary components of OAuthParms. For a list of the fields in this group see OAuthParametersGroup. It is likely that for most classes only the OAuthParms.rToken (aka the AccessToken) will be required.

In the application the user will need to populate the UserLogin method as described above.


To use a service you need to login to the service. The OAuthLogin procedure will do this for you. This procedure takes a single parameter, a group of type OAuthParametersGroup. All you need to do is populate the fields in the group according to the requirements of the service you are connecting to, then pass the group to that OAuthLogin procedure.

The oAuthParametersGroup is declared in

If you are using a class which is aware of NetOAuth then you may only need to set a small subset of the fields. Consult the documentation of that class to be sure.

In the oAuthDemo apps there are example settings for ten different services.
pServiceNameString(100)The (human readable) name of the service you are connecting to. This will be displayed to the user, and can be used when storing the returned values.
pOAuthVersionLongThe OAuth version that the service you are connecting to supports. Possible values are 1 or 2. If the service supports both then set this to 2.
pClientIDString(256)The Client Secret as provided to you when you registered your app on the service. The exact terminology used varies from service to service, but usually includes the term Client ID or App ID.
pClientSecretString(256)The Client Secret as provided to you when you registered your app on the service. The exact terminology used varies from service to service, but usually includes the word Secret or Password. Some examples of this terminology are App Secret, Consumer Secret, Client Secret or Password.
pRedirectURLString(256)The Redirect URL as provided by you to the service when you registered your app on the service. In almost all cases you want to keep this simple and set it to http://localhost. If this is not permitted by the service then any legal url, starting with HTTPS will do. For example - you do not need to actually do anything at that URL, the app never goes there.
Tip: some services (like Facebook) add a trailing / to the URL you enter. If they do, then it's important to include this in this string, or the login will likely fail.
pScopeString(4096)Required by some services, not required by others. Typically identifies the specific API's that your app will use when connecting to the service. The user will be asked to grant your app permission to these API's when they log in. Services that have a very limited API set typically do not need this to be set.
pStateString(256)A unique (random) value which helps to ensure that a user, not a malicious script, is making the Redirect call. If you leave this blank a random value will be inserted for you.
pAuthMethodLongSet to either Net:WebPOSTAuthentication (the default value) or Net:WebBasicAuthentication. This determines the authorization method when doing a token request. 
pResourceString(2048)A resource parameter required by some services.
pRequestTokenPostLongUsually set to false. Set this to true if the service requires that the call to the RequestToken be a POST instead of the usual GET.
pRequestTokenURLString (256)This is only required by services that log in using OAuth 1a. This URL is specific to the service and is usually provided by the service on either their OAuth documentation page, or with your application details when you registered your app on the service.
pAuthorizeURLString(256)This URL is specific to the service and is usually provided by the service on either their OAuth documentation page, or with your application details when you registered your app on the service.
pAccessTokenURLString(256)This URL is specific to the service and is usually provided by the service on either their OAuth documentation page, or with your application details when you registered your app on the service. This is sometimes referred to as the ExchangeURL by some services.
pRefreshTokenURLString (256)If the service uses a different URL for refresh tokens, then enter the value here. If nothing is set here then the pAccessTokenURL is used.
pAccessTokenGETLongSet this to true to make the Access Token URL to a GET request instead of a POST request. Currently OAuth 2 only.
pDontVerifyRemoteCertificateCommonNameLongSome services do not use a correct certificate, in that the common name for the certificate, and the URL for the API do not match.  If this is the case then set this field to true.
pDontVerifyRemoteCertificateWithCARootLongSome services do not use a correct certificate, in that the certificate they are using is not in the normal chain of trust. This can be fixed by either adding their root certificate to the caroot.pem file, or by setting this option to true.
pForceLongIf this is true then a new token will be fetched, even if the current token is still valid.
pGrantTypeString(256)If left blank then this defaults to authorization_code, which is the most common grant type. Some services however only implement the client_credentials grant type in which case this field should be set to that.
rExpiresDateLongA Clarion date when the rToken value will expire.
rExpiresTimeLongA Clarion time when the rToken value will expire.
rRealmIdString(256)Returned by some servers. You may need this when making API calls to the service.
rRefreshToken String(2048) A refresh token from the server. This token can be used to (silently) get another token when the original token expires. This is done automatically for you.
rTokenString(2048) Also known as the Access Token, this is the most important result from the call to OAuthLogin. It is used by both OAuth1 and OAuth 2 API's.
rTokenSecretString(256)The Token Secret is only set when accessing an OAuth 1a service. It will be needed by the class when calling the CreateAuthorizationString1 method (which will need to be done before all calls to the WebService.)
rAuthVerifierString(256)The Auth Verifier is only set when accessing an OAuth 1a service. It will be needed by the class when calling the CreateAuthorizationStringOauth1 method (which will need to be done before all calls to the WebService.)
rCodeString(2048)Only in OAuth2, but not used outside the NetOauth class. It is included here only for the sake of completeness.

Register Your App with the Provider

There are lots of OAuth providers, and they all have slightly different sign-up mechanisms, but the basic workflow is the same. All of them will require you to register your application, choose which API(s) the program will be using, and determine the permissions that your program will need. The user will need to accept these permissions so keeping them as minimal as possible is a good idea.


The Dropbox OAuth Documentation can be found here;

Dropbox requires you to register as a developer, and also register your application which will be using the Dropbox API.

This will allow your application to access the Users' Dropbox folder and files. (They will need to give explicit permission for your app to do this.)

Register your App with Dropbox

  1. Log into Dropbox in a browser, using your own Dropbox ID
  2. Go to
  3. Click on the Create App button
  4. If you have not yet verified the email address associated with your Dropbox account, then you will need to do that now. If your email address is already authenticated then move on to the next step.
  5. Select the appropriate API (usually the Dropbox API), the appropriate access requirements (usually just an App Folder), and give the app a name. Click on the Create button. You need to do this step even if your app won't actually use Dropbox directly, you only want users to be able to authenticate via Dropbox.
  6. At this point you will be able to see your App Key, and App Secret. You will need these when completing the OAuthParametersGroup.
  7. For the Redirect URL enter http://localhost
    Hint: You will need to click on the Add button to add the URL to the list.
  8. If you wish, you can go to the Branding tab and set branding items there that you wish the user to see when logging in.


The Google OAuth documentation can be found here;

Google requires you to register as a developer.

Register your App with Google

  1. Log into Google using your own Google login and Password
  2. Go to the Google Console at
  3. Go to the Credentials tab (Hint: It might be under the fly-in menu on the left) and click on the Create Credentials button to create a new application.
  4. Select the OAuth Client ID option.
  5. Set the Application Type to be a Web Application. Give it a name. In the Authorized Redirect URL's option put
  6. Click on the Create button.
  7. Your Client ID and Client Secret will be displayed. You will need these when completing the OAuthParametersGroup.
  8. Go to the Credentials tab, to the OAuth Consent screen tab, and enter your details there.
  9. Click on the Library tab to set the APIs that the login will use. After selecting them note the Enable button at the top of the screen. You need to press that to enable the API.
  10. The Scope parameter will need to be set to match the APIs you have selected. For a list of possible Scope values see


The developer page for Facebook is at

Register your App with Facebook

  1. Log into Facebook using your normal account.
  2. Go to
  3. Click the Register Now button to register as a Facebook developer.
  4. Once you are Registered you can register an app by clicking on the Create App ID button.
  5. On the left of the window is the menu. Click on the Settings tab. You will need these when completing the OAuthParametersGroup.
  6. Click on the Add Platform button. Choose Web site.


You will need to register your application

Register your App with Microsoft

  1. Log into Microsoft here  using your Microsoft login and Password.
  2. You will then be on the My Applications window (or go here )
  3. Click on Add An App
  4. Give the application a name and a contact email.
  5. Tick OFF Guided Setup
  6. Press the Create Button
  7. The page will now show you the Application ID. You will need this when completing the OAuthParametersGroup.
  8. Click on Generate New Password. You will need this when completing the OAuthParametersGroup.
  9. Click on Add Platform, Choose Web
  10. For Redirect URL's click on Add URL and enter http://localhost
  11. Click on SAVE at the bottom of the page.


Xero is an online accounting system.

It contains an API that lets programs interact with the data set. So, for example, your program might post invoices directly into Xero.

NetOAuth doesn't implement the Xero API, this document just contains the workflow to logging into Xero, so that you can implement the API in the normal way from there. For more on the Xero partner program see .

Register as an App Partner

  1. Go here to register as an app partner - (scroll down to the bottom of the page to do the actual registration)

Register your App with Xero

  1. The getting started guide for Xero is at .
  2. First sign up to the API here - . Once this is completed you will get an email verification.
  3. Click on the link in the email to set a password for your account.
  4. You will then see a form to "Add your Organization to Xero now". DON'T DO THIS. Rather click on the (very small) link to "Try the Demo Company"
  5. Add an application to Xero here -
    For the OAuth callback domain enter
    localhost (NOT http://localhost)
  6. The screen will now display the Consumer Key, and Consumer Secret. You will need these when completing the OAuthParametersGroup.


Hint: Although all Yahoo services make use of the Yahoo Login, not all of them support OAuth2. Some (like Flickr) are still on OAuth 1a.

Register your App with Yahoo

  1. Log into Yahoo with your normal Yahoo account.
  2. Add your application here
  3. Set the application type to "Installed Application".
  4. Set the callback domain to something like Yahoo does not support Localhost here.
  5. Select the API's you want to consume with this app.
  6. Click on the Create App button.
  7. This should take you to the app screen. You will need these when completing the OAuthParametersGroup.
  8. You can return to your list of Yahoo Apps later on by going here. h . This will allow you to see your Client ID and Client Secret again.


Although Flickr is a Yahoo property, the Flickr API is separate from the Yahoo API.

Register your App with Flickr

  1. Log into Flickr with your Yahoo account.
  2. Go to the Flickr developer home page here ;
  3. Click the API link at the top of the page (
  4. Click the Request an API key link. (
  5. Click the Request an API link. (yeah, again)
  6. Choose Non-Commercial or Commercial.
  7. Enter your application name, and description. Set the App type to Web Application, and in the Callback URL enter http://localhost - When the form is complete click on Submit.
  8. Make a note of the Key and Secret. You will need these when completing the OAuthParametersGroup.
  9. Click the Edit Authentication Flow link.
  10. Set the App Type to Desktop Application, Enter a logo and description if you like. Click on Save Changes.

Quickbooks (Intuit)

Intuit developer page is at
Create a developer account.
The list of your Intuit apps is at . The first time you go here you will be prompted to create your first app.
Intuit OAuth documentation is at 

Register your App with Intuit

  1. Go to
  2. In the "Just Start Coding" option click on the Select API's button.
  3. Select the API's you want to use
  4. Click on the Create App button
  5. Go to the My Apps list (
  6. Click on the app you just made (likely called Untitled)
  7. Click on the Settings tab. Give the App a name. Set Single Sign on to No.
  8. Click the Save button (top right corner of the screen)
  9. On the Keys tab make a note of the OAuth Consumer Key and OAuth Consumer Secret fields. You will need these when completing the OAuthParametersGroup.


Register your App with LinkedIn

  1. Log into Linked In
  2. Go to
  3. Click on Create Application button
  4. Fill in the various details and click OK.
  5. The Authentication Keys will be displayed. You will need these when completing the OAuthParametersGroup.


Register your App with Instagram

  1. Log into Instagram
  2. Go to
  3. Click on the Register Your Application button
  4. Fill in the various details and click OK.
  5. Go to the Manage Clients tab, and click on the Register a new Client button.
  6. Enter your details. For Valid redirect URIs put http://localhost
  7. Once everything is filled in click on the Register button.
  8. The application should now be in the list of clients. Click on the Manage button for the app.
  9. The Client ID and Client Secret are here. You will need these when completing the OAuthParametersGroup.

Using in a Web Server

To this point the discussion has revolved around using OAuth authentication in a desktop program. It's possible however that you will want to make use of external APIs from a Web server program. For example, you may want to allow a user on your server to archive reports to say Dropbox. To do this the user has to log into drop box, and then the Server can copy the file there.

Ground Rules

Class Reference


Included in NetTalk Desktop


  • NetOAuth ( NetOAuth.Inc / NetOAuth.Clw )


Parms OAuthParametersGroup A pointer to the Parms group passed to the INIT method.


DoneCalled when the login is complete.
ErrorTrapCalled when an error occurs.
HandleRedirectURLCalled when the File Explorer control is complete, and the service is calling the Redirect URL.
InitPrimes the object ready for the login.
PageReceivedIs called when incoming request to the OAuth server are completed. A single login typically spans multiple requests, and responses to the server.
StartAuthStarts the OAuth process.
UserLoginTransfers control back from the object to the calling procedure. Typically triggers the File Explorer control with the passed URL.


Done ()


This method is called when a login is complete. 


The OAuthDemo procedure uses this method to save the various tokens. It also displays a message to the user, and closes the login window.

Return Value

The method returns nothing.

See Also



ErrorTrap (string ErrorStr, string FunctionName)


ErrorTrap is called if a communications error occurs, or if a request is incomplete in some way.

ErrorStrA description of the error
FunctionName the name of the method where the error occured.


You will need to add any error handling code into this method.

Return Value

The method returns nothing.

See Also



HandleRedirectUrl (string pUrl)


This method is called by the FileExplorer EventNavigateComplete2 method when the service calls the Callback URL.

pURLThe callback URL as set by the remote service.


The callback URL contains various interim results from the login process. This method passes control back to the OAuth object where further interactions with the remote server can take place. If everything is successful then the process will complete in the Done method.

Return Value

The method returns 0 if it was successful. It returns a non-zero value (and ErrorTrap is called) if the URL being received was not complete.

See Also

UserLogin , ErrorTrap, Done


Init (*OAuthParametersGroup pParms)


This method sets up the object so that it is ready to do a login. The various fields in the pParms group need to be set correctly for the login to work. For more information on the settings see here.


pParmsContains all the properties necessary to call the service. For more information on the properties see the section OAuthParmetersGroup.


The parms parameter also contains the return values as returned by the service.

Return Value

The method returns a long. If set to 0 then the login was succesful, if set to not zero then the login failed.

See Also





The login process with the server typically spans several requests and responses with the server. This method handles each response and determines what step to make next. You do not need to embed anything in this method.

Return Value

The method returns nothing.

See Also



StartAuth ()


This method starts the authentication process. It needs to be called after the call to the Init method.


This starts the process, and the OAuth object has control. When it is ready to do so the object hands back control to the File Explorer object by calling the UserLogin method. Control will then return to the OAuth object via the HandleRedirectUrl method.

Return Value

The method returns nothing.

See Also

Init, UserLogin, HandleRedirectUrl


UserLogin (String pUrl)


This method is called when control returns from the OAuth object to the File Explorer control on the window. The URL parameter indicates the URL that should be loaded by the File Explorer control.


pUrlThe URL that the File Explorer control should load.


This call starts the sequence where the user interacts with the remote service directly via the HTML control on the window. The user will remain in this control until the service indicates it is done by redirecting to the callback URL. This is detected by the File Explorer object, and control is returned to the object via the HandleRedirectUrl method.

Return Value

The method returns nothing.

See Also


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